Cancer causes uncontrolled cell division. This can lead to tumors, immune system damage, and other potentially fatal disorders.
According to a 2018 report by the American Cancer Society, as of January 1, 2016, there were approximately 15.5 million cancer patients living in the United States.
In this article, we explore the types of cancer, how it develops, and the many treatments that can help improve quality of life and survival.
What is cancer in hindi – कैंसर क्या है
Cancer is a broad term. Describes a disease that occurs when cellular changes cause uncontrolled cell growth and division.
Some cancers cause cells to grow faster, while others cause cells to grow and divide more slowly.
Some cancers cause visible tumors called tumors, while others, such as leukemia, do not.
Most cells in the body have specific functions and fixed lifespans. While this may sound bad, cell death is part of a natural and beneficial phenomenon called apoptosis.
Cells are instructed to die so the body can replace them with new, better working cells. Cancer cells do not have substances that stop them from dividing and dying.
As a result, they usually accumulate in the body along with oxygen and nutrients that nourish other cells. Cancer cells can form tumors, weaken the immune system, and cause other changes that interfere with normal body functions.
Cancer cells can develop in a specific site and spread through the lymph nodes. These are aggregates of immune cells found throughout the body.
There are many causes of cancer, some of which are preventable.
For example, according to data released in 2014, more than 480,000 people in the United States die each year from tobacco smoking.
In addition to smoking, cancer risk factors include:
- drink strong
- lack of physical activity
- poor diet
Other causes of cancer cannot be prevented. The most important risk factor now is inevitably age. According to the American Cancer Society, American doctors diagnose 87% of cancers in people over the age of 50.
Is cancer genetic?
Genetic factors can contribute to the development of cancer.
The human genetic code tells cells when to divide and when to quit. Genetic changes can lead to misdirection, which can lead to cancer.
Genes also influence the production of proteins by cells, and proteins carry many instructions for cell growth and division.
Some genes change proteins that normally repair damaged cells. This can lead to cancer. If parents have these genes, they can pass on personalized instructions to their children.
Some genetic changes occur after birth, and factors such as smoking and sun exposure can increase your risk.
Other changes that can cause cancer include chemical signals that determine how the body uses or “expresses” certain genes.
Finally, a person may inherit a predisposition to certain types of cancer. Doctors may call this hereditary cancer syndrome. Inherited genetic mutations contribute significantly to 5-10% of cancers.
Treatments of cancer
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Innovative research has driven the development of new drugs and therapeutic technologies.
Doctors usually prescribe treatment based on the type of cancer, the stage at which it is diagnosed, and the person’s general health.
Here are some examples of how to treat cancer.
- Chemotherapy is a drug that targets rapidly dividing cells that aim to kill cancer cells. Medications can also help reduce swelling, but the side effects can be serious.
- Hormone therapy involves taking drugs that change the way some hormones work or prevent them from being produced by the body. If hormones play an important role, for example in prostate and breast cancer, this is a normal approach.
- Immunotherapy recommends the use of drugs and other therapies to strengthen the immune system and fight cancer cells. Checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive cell transplantation are two examples of such therapies.
- Precision medicine or personalized medicine is a new and evolving method. The use of genetic testing to determine the best treatment for an individual’s specific cancer. However, researchers have not yet shown that it can effectively treat all types of cancer.
- Radiation therapy uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells. Your doctor may also recommend using radiation to shrink the tumor before surgery or to reduce symptoms associated with the tumor.
- Stem cell transplantation can be especially useful for people with blood cancers such as leukemia or lymphoma. These include:
- Cells such as red blood cells or white blood cells that have been destroyed by chemotherapy or radiation are removed. The technique then strengthens the cells and returns them to the body.
- When you have cancer, surgery is often part of your treatment plan. Surgeons can also remove lymph nodes to reduce or prevent the spread of the disease.
- Targeted therapies prevent cancer cells from multiplying and act as cancer cells. They can also boost the immune system. Small molecule drugs and monoclonal antibodies are two examples of such therapies.
Doctors often use more than one treatment for maximum effect.
Types of Cancer
According to the National Cancer Institute, the most common type of cancer in the United States is breast cancer, followed by lung and prostate cancers, with the exception of non-melanoma skin cancers.
Each year in the United States, more than 40,000 people are diagnosed with one of the following types of cancer:
- thick and rectal
- Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
Other forms are less common. According to the National Cancer Institute, there are over 100 types of cancer.
Cancer development and cell division
Doctors classify cancer based on:
the organization in which it is formed
For example, sarcomas develop in bone or soft tissue, and carcinomas develop in cells that cover the inner or outer surfaces of the body. Basal cell carcinoma develops in the skin and adenocarcinoma may form in the breast.
When cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body, this is called metastasis in medicine.
A person may also have more than one type of cancer at a time.
Improved cancer detection, increased awareness of the risks of smoking, and decreased tobacco use have all contributed to reduced annual cancer diagnoses and deaths.
According to the American Cancer Society, between 1991 and 2015, cancer deaths decreased by 26% overall.
When a person has cancer, the prognosis depends on whether the disease has spread and its type, severity, and location.
Cancer causes uncontrolled cell division. It also prevents dying at a natural point in the life cycle.
Genetic factors such as smoking and lifestyle choices can contribute to the development of the disease. Several factors affect the way DNA communicates with and divides cells directly and lethally.
After skin cancer without melanoma, breast cancer is the most common type in the United States. However, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths.
Treatment is constantly improving. Examples of modern approaches include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. Some people need new alternatives such as stem cell transplantation and precision medicine.
The number of cancer diagnoses and deaths is declining every year.
How do we recognize cancer before it causes serious health problems?
Some cancers cause early symptoms, while others do not show symptoms until advanced. Most of these symptoms often occur for reasons other than cancer.
The best way to catch cancer early is to tell your doctor about any unusual and persistent symptoms so they can advise you on any additional tests you may need.
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